Stefan Stenudd

Stefan Stenudd

About me

I'm a Swedish author and historian of ideas, researching the thought patterns in creation myths. I've also written books about Taoism, the Tarot, and life force concepts around the world. My personal website:

Creation Myths Around the World
How Stories of the Beginning Began

The Meanings of Mythology
Theories through History about Myth and Fable

Creation in Rig Veda 10:129
The Paradox of Origin

Genesis 1
The First Creation Story of the Bible

Enuma Elish
Babylonian Creation Myth

Xingu Creation of Man
Insoluble Solitude

Archetypes in Myths
Meanings of Mythological Symbols

The Logics of Myth
Patterns of Creation

Psychoanalysis of Myth
Freud and Jung

Myth of Creation
An Introduction

Cosmos of the Ancients
What the Greek Philosophers Believed


My Other Websites:

Life Energy

The many old and modern life force beliefs all over the world explained.


The ancient Chinese cosmology and philosophy of life, based on Tao, the Way, and its source texts explained.

Tarot Card Meanings

All about the traditional deck of Tarot divination cards and their archetype symbolism. Also, a free online spread to try it out.

My Books:

Life Energy Encyclopedia. Book by Stefan Stenudd.

Life Energy Encyclopedia

Qi, prana, spirit, ruach, pneuma, and many other life forces around the world explained and compared. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.

Cosmos of the Ancients. Book by Stefan Stenudd.

Cosmos of the Ancients

The Greek philosophers and what they thought about cosmology, myth, and the gods. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.

Tao Te Ching - The Taoism of Lao Tzu Explained. Book by Stefan Stenudd.

Tao Te Ching

The Taoism of Lao Tzu Explained
The great Taoist classic, translated and extensively commented. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.

Tarot Unfolded. Book by Stefan Stenudd.

Tarot Unfolded

An imaginative reading of the Tarot divination cards, focusing on what impressions the images and their symbols give. Several spreads are presented, as well as the meanings of all the 78 cards and their pictures. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.

Sunday Brunch with the World Maker. Novel by Stefan Stenudd.

Sunday Brunch with the World Maker

Fiction. A brunch conversation slips into the mysterious, soon to burst beyond the realm of possibility. Click the image to see the book at Amazon.

Tiamat, the Babylonian creation goddess.

Enuma Elish 2

The Babylonian Creation Myth

2 The continued story

The Enuma Elish story continues: Tiamat bears with the noise, but her spouse Apsu is aggravated and together with his vizier Mummu plots to kill the gods. The gods hear about it, and one of them, Ea (also called Nudimmud), kills Apsu and ties up Mummu. The verb ‘tie’ is the same as that for ‘conquer’. In the epic, both meanings of the word are used. Marduk, Ea’s and Damkina’s son, is created within Apsu’s corpse. Marduk is given power over the winds, by which he makes a flood-wave that stirs up Tiamat. Some of the gods – unclear which ones – complain to Tiamat:

Because they slew Apsu your lover and
You did not go to his side but sat mute,
He has created the four, fearful winds
To stir up your belly on purpose, and we simply cannot sleep!

       They insist that she should do battle with the gods guilty of Apsu’s death and the continued unrest.

       The division of gods into those loyal or not to Tiamat may have been that of Anunna and Igigi, the two groups that the Babylonian gods were normally divided into. It is unclear what criteria was used for this division, and it might have changed through the times. Dalley has the Anunna connected to the underworld, and the Igigi to the sky.

       Tiamat is convinced by the complaining gods, and prepares for battle against “the gods inside him (Apsu).” Snakes with bodies filled of venom are created, and terrible dragons. The monsters are created by ‘Mother Hubur’, another name for Tiamat. All in all, she creates eleven kinds of monsters, of which nine are named: a horned serpent, a mushussu-dragon, a lahmu-hero, an ugallu-demon, a rabid dog, a scorpion man, aggressive umu-demons, a fish-man, and a bull-man.

       Dalley’s Enuma Elish version has eleven monsters in addition to the ones mentioned. Wikander’s Enuma Elish version has it to be eleven monsters, all in all. King’s Enuma Elish version implies eleven kinds of monsters, all in all, which is also how he expressly interprets it. If so, the snakes and dragons mentioned before the list of nine additional monsters must be included in the group of eleven. The Enuma Elish text is often translated so that it implies plural on some of the monsters, but it may very well point to singular.

       Tiamat also promotes her lover Qingu to head her army, and gives him the Tablet of Destinies. Qingu (previously spelled Kingu) is little known outside Enuma Elish. The meaning of the name is unknown.

       Ea learns about this, and reports it to his grandfather Anshar, who blames him for it and demands of him to soothe Tiamat’s uprising. When Ea fails, his son Marduk volunteers to battle Tiamat and her monsters, but demands in return to be given supreme power over the gods:

My own utterance shall fix fate instead of you!
Whatever I create shall never be altered!
The decree of my lips shall never be revoked, never changed!

       The gods agree, and they found a princely shrine for him. He is given several powers – such as that of having constellations disappear and reappear. Marduk makes himself a mighty bow and arrow, a mace, and a net to encircle Tiamat. A net is an odd tool by which to capture a water creature. He would do better with his winds only. In the Enuma Elish text, Marduk encircles Tiamat with the net, and forces open her mouth with his wind. He resists her spells, imprisons her with seven winds, and then uses his bow:

He shot an arrow which pierced her belly,
Split her down the middle and slit her heart,
Vanquished her and extinguished her life.

Marduk chases Tiamat.

       Marduk fixes the monsters with nose-ropes and ties their arms. He defeats Qingu and takes the Table of Destinies, seals it with his own seal and presses it to his breast. Out of Tiamat’s corpse, he creates the world:

He sliced her in half like a fish for drying:
Half of her he put up to roof the sky,
Drew a bolt across and made a guard hold it.
Her waters he arranged so that they could not escape.

       One wonders how her waters were arranged, not to escape. Perhaps an ordering of them into seas and rivers is implied. He also arranges the constellations in the sky, designates the year and the months, appointing three stars for each of the twelve months, and sets the moon’s phases. From parts of Tiamat he creates rivers and landscape. He makes “a house to be a luxurious dwelling for myself,” a cult center that will also serve as a resting place for the gods.

I hereby name it Babylon, home of the great gods.

       The word used in the Enuma Elish text is written phonetically, ba-ab-i-li, contrary to tradition, maybe to allow for the etymological explanation of the name as the ‘gate of the gods’.

       Then Marduk decides to create man, to serve the gods with offerings, so that they can be at leisure. The word used in Enuma Elish for man is lullu, meaning a first, primitive man. The same word is used about the savage Enkidu in the Gilgamesh epic. Since Qingu is found guilty of the war between the gods, his blood is used to create mankind. Here, it is unclear if Marduk or Ea creates mankind. Later in the Enuma Elish text, Ea is specified as the creator of man. Finally, the gods praise Marduk, and give him fifty names that represent different aspects of his powers and sovereignty.

       The Enuma Elish text ends with instructions on how it should be passed on from generation to generation, and the command to worship Marduk, king of the gods.


3   Enuma Elish: The Source

Enuma Elish

The Babylonian Creation Myth
  1. Enuma Elish: The Creation
  2. Enuma Elish: The Continued Story
  3. Enuma Elish: The Source
  4. Enuma Elish: Theories
  5. Enuma Elish: Separation of purposes
  6. Enuma Elish: Mode of creation

This article about the Enuma Elish Babylonian Creation Myth was originally written in the year 2007 for a seminar at the Department of History of Ideas, Lund University, as a part of my dissertation in progress on Creation Myths and their patterns of thought. Transforming the text to webpages, I have excluded footnotes, or edited them into the text.
© Stefan Stenudd 2007